Aquaculture includes many and varied farming practices, depending on the target species (algae, molluscs, crustaceans, fish and other aquatic organisms), the environment and the systems used, providing a wide range of possibilities to increase production and income in many rural and peri-urban areas.
Product quality reflects the farming methods, technologies used, energy savings and water resources used.
Particular attention is given to closed recirculation systems, known in the international literature as RAS (Recirculated Aquaculture Systems) used in the most modern aquaculture facilities.
In these plants, the water can be subjected to different types of treatment: mechanical, biological, thermal, gaseous rebalancing, chemical rebalancing and killing of bacteria, but the essential core of the system is represented by the biofilter. This system respects the environment and applies an environmentally friendly method – it works by subjecting waste water of the breeding tanks to various treatments so that this water can be largely reused.
This technology has allowed aquaculture to become a very important economic sector of food production. Even if it cannot fully replace fishing, it is assuming an increasingly important role in ensuring significant diversification of species for the fish market, and in preserving and restocking inland waters for the preservation of biodiversity.